India has always been referred to as the ‘Sone ki Chidiya,’ or the golden bird, because of its diverse cultural history. The earliest forms of Indian art date back to 3,500 BC, and both cultural and religious factors have a significant impact on their development. Whether they be paintings, sculptures, poems, or musical compositions, the diverse culture of the nation leaves a profound impression on these artistic creations.
Indian Art For Pre-Historic Times
Ancient Indian artistic expressions can be seen in Rock Paintings and Temple Art. The Indian subcontinent has a long history of creating cave art, the murals at Ajanta and Ellora, Bagh, Sittanavasal, etc., which reflect cultural authenticity, are among the finest examples of these paintings.
The wall paintings in the Bagh Caves date from the 5th and 7th centuries. These works of art represent magnificent examples of Indian artistic traditions These mural paintings are worth your attention.
These paintings feature a variety of scenes, including animals, fish, ducks, group meetings of people, lotuses from a pond, two dancing figures, and others. Inscriptions from the 9th and 10th centuries are also present.
Between the years 800 and 1300 AD, the Chola Artists of Deccan created paintings and sculptures out of rock, sandstone, and metal. They are widely known for their bronze sculptures, among which the sculpture of Shiva as ‘Natraja’ is notable.
Indian Art Form In Colonial Times
It was during the phase when Indian art was influenced by the colonialism of the British Raj, and the Bengal School of Arts originated in the early 20th century. It was also associated with Indian nationalism, while many British arts administrators also supported and encouraged it.
Miniature paintings are a work of love that is delicately crafted and shown on a variety of surfaces, including palm leaves, paper, wood, marble, ivory panels, and fabric. To produce gorgeous colours, organic and natural minerals, such as stone dust, and actual gold and silver dust are produced. Even the paper that is used is unique it is been polished with stone to provide a smooth, opaque surface.
Rajasthani Miniature Art
In contrast to Mughal Miniature art, which portrayed real life, Rajasthani Miniatures, which were created as manuscripts and decorations on the walls of Havelis and Forts, focused on the love tales of Lord Krishna and the mythical literature of the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
In the mountain areas between Jammu and Himachal Pradesh, the Pahari style also developed with the support of the Rajputs. The Mughal Miniature painting and the Vaishnavite narratives were assimilated into the Pahari School’s development.
There are several schools of Pahari art, including the assertive Guler and the Kulu-Mandi, the delicate Kangra style, with its poetic portrayal of naturalism and the city of ‘Srinagar’, and the bold Basohli art with its use of monochrome colours and depiction of multi-floor constructions.
The miniature art form known as the Deccani style was popular in Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Golkonda, and Hyderabad between the 16th and 19th centuries. It was a style of Islamic painting that combined Turkish, Iranian, and European elements. The Holy Quran and the Surahs were often depicted in Deccani paintings at this time through text illumination and ornamentation.
Indian art continues to show the range of creative and cultural influence that has informed and defined its aesthetic throughout Indian art history, from prehistoric rock carvings to current adaptations of traditions.
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